您的位置: 炊烟美食 > 图书

英国心理健康审查

2019-11-08来源:炊烟美食


公众对于心理疾病的认可是一个问题。至少三分之二确诊的人没有针对自己的问题接受治疗。资金也是一个问题。虽然心理疾病占了英国国家疾病负担的28%,它只占了国家健康服务支出(简称NHS)的13%。


Mentalillness is at last getting the attention, if not the money, it needs

心理疾病至少争取到了它所该有的关注,就算不是财政援助

 

The prime minister makes a big speech but signs a small cheque

英国首相发表了重大讲话然而签了很小金额的支票

 

01 MENTAL health care has long been the poorrelation of its physical counterpart. The stigma of mental illness remains heavy. One in six adults in England has been diagnosed with a common mental disorder such as depression or anxiety. Yet at least two-thirds of people diagnosed receive no treatment for their condition. In 2012 the Health and Social Care Act created a legal responsibility for the government to give the same priority to mental health as it gives to physical health. Now the prime minister, Theresa May, has added her voice.

一直以来,心理健康医疗都和其相对应的生理健康医疗相比之下处于劣势。人们严重保持对心理疾病的羞耻态度。在英国,每六个成人里面就有一个已经被诊断出患有常见的心理疾病如抑郁症或焦虑症。然而至少三分之二确诊的人没有针对自己的问题接受治疗。在2012年,《健康和社会保健法》规定了一个法律义务,那就是政府应当把心理健康和生理健康视为同样重要的事情。现在首相特蕾莎·梅也对此发表了讲话。

 

1. poor relation: (相似或从属但)相形见绌的东西 If you describe one thing as a poor relation of another, you mean that it is similar to or part of the other thing, but is considered to be inferior to it.

Eg: Watercolour still seems somehow to be the poor relation of oil painting.

水彩画似乎仍比油画略逊一筹。

 2. stigma(/ˈstɪɡmə/): 耻辱;污名 If something has a stigma attached to it, people think it is something to be ashamed of.

Eg: There is very little stigma attached to crime and criminals.

人们几乎都不把犯罪和罪犯视为一种耻辱。

 

02 In a speech on January 9th Mrs May warned that mentalhealth had been “dangerously disregarded”. She promised to transform attitudesto mental illness, including a special focus on children and young people.(Government figures show that three-quarters of mental-health problems startbefore the age of 18.) This will include teachers in every school being offeredmental health first-aid training, and better support in the workplace.

在一月九号的一次演讲上,梅女士强调心理健康一直以来极其地不被重视。她承诺会转变对待心理疾病的态度,包括对儿童和年轻人的特别关注。(政府的调查数据显示四分之三的心理健康问题在18岁以前就产生了。)这包括每所学校的老师都要接受心理健康问题的急救训练以及在工作岗位上得到更好的支持。

 

1. workplace: 工作场所 Your workplace is the place where you work.

Eg: ...the difficulties facing women in the workplace...

女性在工作场所面临的种种困难

 

03 According to the Centre for Mental Health, a think-tank, the consequences of mental illness cost the British economy more than £100bn($120bn) a year in health care and lost economic output from sickness or unemployment. But the system is structured badly, with physical and mental care run and funded separately. This means treatment is not integrated and money wasted.

据心理健康中心的一个智囊团分析,心理疾病产生的后果就是给英国的经济带来每年超过1000亿欧元(相当于1200亿美元)的损失,损失包括在医疗保健方面的支出以及因为疾病或失业导致的经济损失。但是,整个系统的结构设置极其的不合理(生理和心理保健分开运营以及资助)。这意味着治疗的不完整以及资金的浪费。

 

1. fund: (尤指为某一特定目的给予的)资金,钱款 Funds are amounts of money that are available to be spent, especially money that is given to an organization or person for a particular purpose.

Eg: The concert will raise funds for research into Aids.

这场音乐会将为艾滋病研究筹款。

2. from: 因为;由于;出于 You use from after some verbs and nouns when mentioning the cause of something.

Eg: The problem simply resulted from a difference of opinion.

这个问题仅仅是由于意见分歧引起的。

 

04 Funding is a problem, too. Though mental illness represents 28% of the national disease burden in Britain, it accounts for only 13% of spending by the National Health Service (NHS). In 2011-12, for the first time in a decade, funding for mental health fell, says the King’s Fund, another think-tank. Even though the NHS mandated that such funding should increase in 2015-16 alongside increases for acute care, about 40% of mental-health trusts continue to experience year-on-year cuts to their budgets. Since government money for mental illness is not ring-fenced, it is often used to plug gaps in funding for emergency hospital care or other areas. Mrs May spoke of the need for better accountability. But “investment in mental health has been difficult to maintain when pressures on acute hospital care are so great,” says Helen Gilburt of the King’s Fund.

资金也是一个问题。虽然心理疾病占了英国国家疾病负担的28%,它只占了国家健康服务支出(简称NHS)的13%。在2011年到2012年间,十年里面首次,国家给心理健康的资金投入降低了,另外一个智囊团———国王基金说到。即使NHS批准了心理健康资金投入在2015年到2016年和急诊的治疗资金一样应该提升,但还是有将近40%的心理疾病基金持续经历每年预算的裁剪。由于政府财政对心理疾病的拨款并不只用在心理保健方面,这部分资金在过去就常常用来填补医院急诊或其他领域的空缺。梅女士提到了对心理健康应该负担起更多的责任。但是国王资金会的海伦吉尔伯特说到,当医院急诊的压力巨大时国家对心理健康医疗的投资一直以来都很难保持。

 

1. mandate: 批准;颁布;强制执行 To mandate something means to make it mandatory.

Eg: The proposed initiative would mandate a reduction of carbon dioxide of 40%.

倡议将强制规定把二氧化碳排放量降低40%。

2. ring-fence: 限制(拨款或资金)的用途;使…专门用于 To ring-fence a grant or fund means to put restrictions on it, so that it can only be used for a particular purpose.

Eg: The Treasury has now agreed to ring-fence the money to ensure that it goes directly towards helping elderly people.

财政部现在已经同意限制这笔钱的用途,以保证其直接用于帮助老年人。

3. plug the gap: to provide something that is needed, because there is not enough:

Eg: With so few trained doctors, paramedics were brought in to plug the gap.

4. paramedic: 急救医士;医务辅助人员 A paramedic is a person whose training is similar to that of a nurse and who helps to do medical work.

Eg: We intend to have a paramedic on every ambulance within the next three years.

我们计划在未来3年内为每辆救护车配备一名急救医士。

5. accountability: 责任制; 有责任,有义务,可说明性; 会计责任; 可计量性

Eg: Good management in the police cannot be divorced from accountability.

对警察队伍的良好管理和应负的责任是分不开的。

6. acute: 急性的 An acute illness is one that becomes severe very quickly but does not last very long.

Eg: ...a patient with acute rheumatoid arthritis.

患急性风湿性关节炎的病人

 

05 Those pressures have become even more evident in recent days. On January 7th the Red Cross claimed there was a “humanitarian crisis” in Britain’s hospitals. The NHS’s medical director for acute care denied this but admitted that staff were under “a level of pressure we haven’t seen before”. According to leaked documents seen by the BBC, nearly a quarter of patients waited longer than four hours in accident and emergency (A&E) rooms in the first week of this year. One in five patients admitted for further treatment endured a long wait on a trolley or in a hospital corridor—twice the rate normally seen. With not enough mental-health care provided in the community, recent research has found that the number of people with mental illness coming to A&E doubled between 2011-12 and 2015-16.

那些压力在最近尤为明显。在1月7号,红十字会称在英国的医院里面有一种人道主义危机。NHS的急救药物主管否认此事但是承认了员工正承受着“前所未有”的压力。根据BBC目睹的泄露文件,将近四分之一的病人今年第一周在紧急意外室等候超过4小时。5个病人中就有一个接受进一步治疗的需要在医院的手推车或走廊上忍受一段很长时间的等待,而这是平常的速度的两倍。由于在社区没有提供足够的心理治疗,最近的调查显示有心理疾病来急诊的数量比2011-2012年和2015-2016年翻了一倍。

 

1. humanitarian(/hjuːˌmænəˈteəriən/): 人道主义的;博爱的 If a person or society has humanitarian ideas or behaviour, they try to avoid making people suffer or they help people who are suffering.

Eg: Air bombardment raised criticism on the humanitarian grounds that innocent civilians might suffer.

空袭遭到了批评,因为从人道主义的立场来看,无辜的平民可能会受到伤害。

2. endure: 忍耐;忍受 If you endure a painful or difficult situation, you experience it and do not avoid it or give up, usually because you cannot.

Eg: ...unbearable pain, which they had to endure in solitude because not even the doctors could get near them.

他们不得不独自承受的无法忍受的疼痛,因为甚至连医生都无法靠近他们

3. trolley(/ˈtrɒli/): 1) (购物或装行李用的)手推车 A trolley is an object with wheels that you use to transport heavy things such as shopping or luggage.

Eg: A porter relieved her of the three large cases she had been pushing on a trolley.

搬运工帮她卸下了她一直用手推车推着的3个大箱子。

2) 担架车 A trolley is a bed on wheels for moving patients in hospital.

Eg: She was left on a hospital trolley for 14 hours without even a glass of water.

她被放在一辆担架车上14个小时,连一杯水都没有喝。

 

06 The fact that the prime minister herself has chosen to highlight the issue marks an important step, says Graham Thornicroft of King’s College London. Talking about mental health used to be seen as a vote loser. Now, he says, not only are more celebrities unafraid to talk openly about their mental illness, but it appears to have entered the mainstream as a political issue. “We now need to see if this policy priority is backed up by substantial extra resources to make sure these aspirations become reality,” he adds.

首相自己选择强调这一问题是向前迈出了重要的一步,伦敦皇家学院的格兰汉史鲁尼科洛福特说到。谈到心理疾病在过去被视为竞选失败者。而现在,他说,不仅越来越多的名人不再害怕公开谈论自己的心理疾病,而且这也成了主要的政治问题之一。“我们现在需要确保这种政治优势是否有足够的额外资源的支撑来保证这些愿望成为现实。”他补充到。

 

1. substantial(/səbˈstænʃəl/): 大量的;相当程度的;重大的 Substantial means large in amount or degree. →see usage note at: important

Eg: The party has just lost office and with it a substantial number of seats.

该党刚刚竞选失利,同时还失去了许多席位。

2. aspiration: 抱负;志向;渴望 Some-one's aspirations are their desire to achieve things.

Eg: He is unlikely to send in the army to quell nationalist aspirations.

他不可能派兵去扼杀民族主义理想。

3. quell: 消除,祛除(害怕、愤怒等) If you quell an unpleasant feeling such as fear or anger, you stop yourself or other people from having that feeling.

Eg: The Information Minister is trying to quell fears of a looming oil crisis.

新闻部长正努力消除民众对一触即发的石油危机的恐惧。

 

07 On that front, Mrs May is implementing a pledge made last year by her predecessor, David Cameron, to spend £1bn on adult mental health and £1.4bn on youth mental health during this parliament. That money is being spent on both acute mental health care, such as specialists at every A&E unit, and on community care. New rules limit how long a patient with acute mental illness should wait, just like the four-hour limits for physical maladies in A&E. But this week’s announcements added up to additional funding of only £15m for community care, and £67m for digital services like online therapy—small beer considering the scale of the problems and of the prime minister’s avowed ambitions.

在那一方面,梅女士正在兑现上一任首相卡梅伦做出的承诺,即在此届政府期间,拨款十亿给成人心理保健,拨款十四亿给未成年人心理保健。这些钱正被用在心理急救门诊,例如每个意外急救门诊的专家以及社区医疗上面。新的规定限制每个心理疾病患者急诊需要等待的时长,正如在意外急诊部门的外4小时限制。但是这周的通告增加了1500万欧元社区医疗的额外资金以及6700万的电子服务例如在线治疗—但这根本微不足道,考虑到问题的严重程度以及首相公开宣布的目标。

 

1. malady(/ˈmælədi/): 病;疾病 A malady is an illness or disease.

Eg: He was stricken at twenty-one with a crippling malady.

他21岁时突患致残重疾。

2. small beer: 无关紧要的事情;琐事 If you say that something is small beer, you mean that it is unimportant in comparison with something else.

Eg: Such roles are small beer compared with the fame she once enjoyed.

和她曾经享有的名气相比,这样的角色真的算不了什么。

3. avowed(/əˈvaʊd/):(信念、目标)公开宣布的 An avowed belief or aim is one that you have declared formally or publicly.

Eg: ...the council's avowed intention to stamp on racism.

理事会宣布要消灭种族歧视

4. stamp on: 阻止,压制(不良行为) If someone stamps on a dishonest or undesirable activity, they act immediately to stop it happening or spreading.

Eg: The government's first duty is to defend the currency by stamping on inflation.

政府的首要职责就是通过抑制通货膨胀来保持货币稳定。

5. front: (某个)方面,领域 If you say that something is happening on a particular front, you mean that it is happening with regard to a particular situation or field of activity.

Eg: We're moving forward on a variety of fronts.

我们正在多个方面向前推进。

 

08 Demand is growing. The NHS found that the proportion of people with anxiety and depression receiving treatment increased from 24% in 2007 to 37% in 2014. This may show that people are feeling confident enough to seek help as the stigma of mental illness decreases, says Mr Thornicroft. But the NHS also found that the proportion of the population reporting self-harm trebled between 2000 and 2014, to 6%, including one in five 16- to 24-year-old women. With such a tide, money to match the great promises for mental health cannot come soon enough.

需求正在增长。NHS发现从2007年到2014年间,接受治疗的焦虑症以及抑郁症患者的比例由24%增至37%。史鲁尼科洛福特先生说这表明了随着对心理疾病的羞耻感不断减少人们越来越有自信去寻找帮助。但是NHS同时发现从2000年到2014年间自残的比例翻了三倍,增长至6%,其中16-24岁的女性的自残比例高达五分之一。按照这样的趋势,应对这样巨大的承诺所要的资金需要尽快到位。

 

1. tide: (观点等的)潮流,趋势 The tide of opinion, for example, is what the majority of people think at a particular time.

Eg: The tide of opinion seems overwhelmingly in his favour.

绝大多数人的观点看来是一边倒地支持他的。


本文由炊烟美食整理,内容仅供参考,未经书面授权禁止转载!图片来源图虫创意,版权归原作者所有。